Glossary

Learning and memorizing longevity lingo is a tall task. We want to make it easier for BodyStack members to come up the curve. Use this resource to better understand industry terminology. The definition of many terms are inherently complicated, but we’ve done our best to make it digestible.
Aging and Inflammation - Inflammaging
Inflammaging is a term used to describe the chronic, low-grade inflammation that occurs with aging. It is characterized by an increase in inflammatory markers in the body and is believed to contribute to the development of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Inflammaging is thought to result from a combination of factors, including the aging immune system, cellular senescence, and environmental influences
Aging is a mitochondrial disease
Mitochondrial disease is a group of genetic disorders that affect the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing organelles within cells. These disorders can result from mutations in either nuclear DNA (inherited from both parents) or mitochondrial DNA (inherited maternally). Treatment options for mitochondrial disease are limited and focus on managing symptoms and supporting overall health and well-being.
Biohacking
A method of using technology, science, and lifestyle changes to improve or optimize various health aspects. Different strategies like diet, supplements, exercise, and therapies could be used to enhance physical and cognitive functions in biohackers.
Biological Age
A person's age, not based on their birth year but determined by their physiological condition and health status. Genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors can play a role in determining biological age and it is measured using various biomarkers. It's possible biological age can differ from chronological age, and there can even be differences in biological age between various organs in the body.
Biomarkers
Measurable indicators that can be used to assess biological processes, status of disease, or response to treatments in people. Biomarkers studied could vary depending on what is being measured but can include genes, proteins, cells, or other materials that may be present in the body. Biomarkers are used in medical research and clinical diagnosis and can be measured through various bodily fluids, tissue samples, or other biological samples.
Chemicals
A term do describe any number of substances with a distinct molecular composition. Chemicals may be natural or artificial and depending on their composition could have positive or negative impacts on the human body.
Diagnostic
The process of identifying a disease or condition to understand the causes and effects of an illness, disease, or injury. Diagnostic tests can inform decisions on developing a treatment plan.
Functional Medicine
A school of thought within the medical community that focuses on identifying the root causes of disease, rather than just treating the symptoms. To identify these root causes, practitioners consider genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that play a role in each specific individual's health and personalized treatments plans are created for a person's unique situation.
Gene
A unit of heredity that is responsible for transmitting traits from parents to offspring. These traits can include physical characteristics like eye color, height, and hair texture, as well as susceptibility to certain diseases or conditions. Genes are made up of DNA and are located on chromosomes within the nucleus of cells. They serve as the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. In the context of fitness, genes can influence factors such as metabolism, muscle growth, and response to exercise.
Genetic
The study of how an individual's genetic makeup influences their physical traits, physiological processes, and responses to external factors like exercise and nutrition.
Healthspan
The period of time during an individual's life when they are generally healthy and free from chronic diseases or disabilities. It emphasizes the quality of life and overall well-being, rather than just the length of life.
Healthwashing
Deceptive marketing that positions a product as healthier than it really is.
Hormone
Chemical messengers produced by various glands in the body that regulate numerous physiological processes and behaviors. They are released into the bloodstream and travel to target tissues or organs, where they exert their effects by binding to specific receptors.
Information Theory of Aging
The information theory of aging suggests that aging is influenced by the accumulation of damage to genetic information and the loss of information processing capacity within cells and organisms over time. This theory emphasizes the role of entropy, or disorder, in biological systems and proposes that interventions aimed at preserving or restoring information integrity may help delay aging processes.
Lifespan
The length of time an organism is expected to live, typically measured from birth to death.
Longevity
The length of an individual's lifespan or the ability to live a long and healthy life. It encompasses various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, environmental influences, and healthcare access.
Medicine 1.0
As described in Peter Attia's "Outlive" Medicine 1.0 refers to the era before scientific method was applied to medicine where unproven techniques and superstition were key factors for how people treated various ailments.
Medicine 2.0
As described in Peter Attia's "Outline" Medicine 2.0 refers to our current era of medicine, which focuses on treating symptoms, but not necessarily addressing root causes of illness.
Medicine 3.0
As described in Peter Attia's "Outlive" Medicine 3.0 refers to an approach to medicine that focuses on preventing ailments and disease before they happen by focusing on practices that keep us in optimal health rather than just not being unwell.
Metabolic Systems
The interconnected processes within the body that regulate energy production, utilization, and storage. These systems include pathways such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, which collectively govern metabolism.
Metabolism
The chemical processes that occur in the body to maintain life. It involves converting food into energy, building and repairing tissues, and removing waste products. Metabolism can also be used to describe how efficiently your body burns calories to maintain basic functions such as breathing, circulating blood, and cell production.
Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
A major factor in the rapid advance of medical science over the past 50 years has been the development and refinement of the clinical research method known as the randomized controlled trial (RCT). A clinical trial is defined as a prospective scientific experiment that involves human subjects in whom treatment is initiated for the evaluation of a therapeutic intervention. In an RCT, each patient is assigned to receive a specific treatment intervention by a chance mechanism. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the highest level of evidence to establish causal associations in clinical research.
Scientific Method
A systematic approach used to investigate and understand natural phenomena through observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. It involves making observations, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions based on evidence.
Senility
refers to the physical and mental deterioration often associated with old age.
Supplementation
The use of dietary supplements to augment nutrient intake, address deficiencies, or enhance performance.
Tithonus
This was a figure in Greek mythology who requested that Zeus grant him immortality. However, he did not request eternal youth, so he grew older and weaker ultimately becoming a cricket. This is a cautionary tale with implications suggesting that a healthspan (the number of years you're healthy) is more important than lifespan.
Appetite Regulation
Appetite control is a complex function of the brain that regulates feeding behavior. This function integrates cognitive and emotional factors with a complex array of signals from the gastrointestinal tract and from adipose tissue. The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety.
CGM (continuous glucose monitoring)
A method used to track glucose levels in real time throughout the day and night. It involves wearing a small sensor that continuously measures glucose levels in the and provides information about trends and patterns in glucose levels. There are a variety of types of CGM devices available.
Caloric restriction
A dietary technique where calorie intake is reduced without causing malnutrition. Typically a person will create a caloric deficit by consuming fewer calories than their body needs to maintain weight and normal metabolic function. This may have benefits for metabolic health, reducing the risk of age-related disease, and enhancing longevity when practiced safely and alongside other dietary strategies.
Cleanses
A dietary practice of restricting certain food groups or exclusively consuming specifics foods to achieve a desired effect to support a person's health or wellness goals. The duration and type of cleanse can range widely but generally they may be employed to improve digestion, boost energy, or achieve a specific, temporary, aesthetic effect.
Creatine
A naturally-occuring substance found in muscles that can help produce energy when the muscles are under stress, like during a workout. Creatine is a common supplement that many people use to improve athletic performance or build muscle mass, however not every form of creatine can be easily absorbed by the body. Dr. Jose Antonio and co-author Victoria Ciccone reported in a 2013 issue of The Journal of The International Society of Nutrition that there wasn't any significant difference between the two groups for lean mass gains, body fat, or muscle strength. However, when they ran some much weaker statistical correlations, there was evidence that taking creatine post-workout was more effective on lean muscle gains and muscle strength.
Creatine Hydrochloride (HCl)
Creatine HCl is a combination of creatine and hydrochloride molecules. Hydrochloride makes the supplement more water-soluble, which makes it more easily absorbed than creatine monohydrate.
Creatine Monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
Dry Fasting
A method of fasting where no food or liquids are consumed. This is a more extreme form of fasting that may have different types of benefits and risks compared to other forms of fasting. The length of dry fasts can range from 12-24 hours and may support detoxification and weight loss.
Fasting Glucose Test
A type of blood test used to measure glucose following a period of fasting, usually overnight. These tests can be used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or diagnose the condition.
Intermittent Fasting
An eating pattern that cycles between periods of eating and fasting. It doesn't prescribe specific foods to eat but rather focuses on when to eat them. Popular methods include the 16/8 method (fasting for 16 hours and eating within an 8-hour window) and the 5:2 method (eating normally for five days and restricting calorie intake for two non-consecutive days).
Ketosis
A metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketones in the bloodstream. It typically occurs when carbohydrate intake is restricted, and the body shifts from using glucose as its primary fuel source to using fat for energy.
MCT Oil
MCT oil is a supplement made from a type of fat called medium-chain triglycerides. MCT molecules are smaller than those in most of the fats you eat (long-chain triglycerides [LCT]). This makes them easier to digest. You can absorb MCT in your bloodstream quickly. This turns it into energy you can use.
MRT Food Sensitivity Test
A blood sample screening that tests your blood against 170+ foods to assess which foods are likely causing intestinal inflammation, malabsorption, and permeability that you’ll need to avoid.
Macros
A term commonly used in fitness and nutrition to refer to macronutrients, namely carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Tracking macros involves monitoring the intake of these nutrients to achieve specific fitness goals, such as muscle building, fat loss, or performance enhancement.
Mediterranean
A diet type that focuses on foods and eating habits available to people living in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fish, and olive oil, as well as some dairy products (cheese and yogurt) while de-emphasizing poultry and red meat. It is studied for benefits like weight management, reduced risk of heart disease, and more.
Metabolic Type
An individual's unique metabolic profile, which is influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and environmental influences. It encompasses variations in energy metabolism, nutrient utilization, and hormone regulation, leading to differences in how the body processes and responds to food, exercise, and other stimuli.
Olive oil (what's in it that so good)
A type of oil extracted from olives, the fruit of the olive tree. It is primarily composed of monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid), along with smaller amounts of saturated and polyunsaturated fats.
Paleo
A dietary approach inspired by the presumed eating habits of early humans during the Paleolithic era. It typically emphasizes whole foods such as lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds while excluding processed foods, grains, dairy, legumes, and refined sugars.
Pescatarian
Someone who follows a diet that includes fish and other seafood but excludes meat and poultry. Pescatarian diets are typically plant-based and may also include dairy and eggs, depending on individual preferences.
Vegan
A plant-based eating pattern that excludes all animal products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey.
Water Fasting
A fasting technique where an individual consumes only water for a specific amount of time. Beverages are completely restricted to solely water (no other liquids like coffee or tea) and food is completely cut out of a person's diet. People practicing water fasting may do this as a method of detoxification, for weight loss, or other perceived health benefits, though there are health concerns that are associated with this practice, especially for long durations.
Aerobic Fitness
Aerobic fitness, also known as cardiovascular fitness or cardiorespiratory fitness, refers to the ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to deliver oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity. It is typically measured by assessing the body's capacity to utilize oxygen (VO2 max) during aerobic exercise and is associated with overall cardiovascular health and endurance.
Anaerobic Fitness
Anaerobic fitness is the ability of the body to perform high-intensity, short-duration activities without relying on oxygen for energy production. It primarily involves the anaerobic energy systems, such as the phosphagen system and glycolysis, and is important for activities like sprinting, weightlifting, and high-intensity interval training.
Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) Training
A method where practitioners can learn specialized techniques to apply a tourniquet to restrict or cut off blood flow to muscles during exercise. This technique is used to enhance muscle growth by creating a short term oxygen deficiency which may stimulate muscle growth. While most commonly used in rehabilitation scenarios, the practice is sometimes used in performance training as well.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Cardiorespiratory fitness, also known as aerobic fitness, refers to the ability of the cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) and respiratory (lungs and airways) systems to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness is typically assessed by measuring maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and is an important indicator of overall health and endurance.
Cold Exposure
Sometimes called cryotherapy, cold exposure involves exposing the body to cold temperatures for therapeutic purposes. Benefits may include reducing inflammation, improving circulation, and boosting metabolism. Techniques for this exposure could include a cold plunge in chilled water, ice packs and cold compresses, or specialized cryotherapy chambers.
Concentric Loading
A type of muscle contraction where the muscle shortens as it generates force which is common in exercises like bicep curls.
Creatine
A naturally-occuring substance found in muscles that can help produce energy when the muscles are under stress, like during a workout. Creatine is a common supplement that many people use to improve athletic performance or build muscle mass, however not every form of creatine can be easily absorbed by the body. Dr. Jose Antonio and co-author Victoria Ciccone reported in a 2013 issue of The Journal of The International Society of Nutrition that there wasn't any significant difference between the two groups for lean mass gains, body fat, or muscle strength. However, when they ran some much weaker statistical correlations, there was evidence that taking creatine post-workout was more effective on lean muscle gains and muscle strength.
Creatine Hydrochloride (HCl)
Creatine HCl is a combination of creatine and hydrochloride molecules. Hydrochloride makes the supplement more water-soluble, which makes it more easily absorbed than creatine monohydrate.
Creatine Monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
EMS (Electro-Muscle Stimulation) / Bioelectric Impulse Training
A fitness technique that uses electric impulses to stimulate muscle contractions. These types of devices can be used for a variety of purposes including enhancing muscle strength and tone or aiding in muscle recovery. EMS devices usually have some form of adhesive pad which can be placed on a targeted area on the body.
Eccentric loading
A form of muscle contraction thought to be particularly effective at building muscle. During eccentric loading, the muscle lengthens while under tension (eg. the lowering phase of a bicep curl).
Fat Burn
A process that occurs during periods of exertion or exercise when the body needs more energy than what is available from food, so it taps into existing stored fat.
HIIT
A form of exercise that involves alternating short bursts of intense exercise with brief periods of rest or low-intensity activity. It's known for its efficiency in burning calories, improving cardiovascular fitness, and boosting metabolism.
HRV
A measure of the variation in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. It reflects the balance between the sympathetic (fight-or-flight) and parasympathetic (rest-and-digest) branches of the autonomic nervous system and is often used as an indicator of overall health and fitness.
Maximum Aerobic Output
Maximum aerobic output, also known as maximum aerobic capacity or VO2 max, is the maximum amount of oxygen a person can use during intense exercise. It is a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness and represents the upper limit of an individual's aerobic performance. It is usually expressed in milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight (ml/hg/min).
Rucking (carrying heavy stuff)
A form of exercise that involves walking or hiking with a weighted backpack or rucksack. It offers a full-body workout, engaging muscles in the legs, core, and upper body, while also providing cardiovascular benefits.
Stability Training
Involves exercises that challenge balance, coordination, and core strength to improve stability and proprioception.
Strength
The ability of muscles to exert force against resistance.
Survival Circuit
A type of workout routine that incorporates functional movements, high-intensity exercises, and minimal rest periods to simulate physical challenges and promote cardiovascular endurance, strength, and overall fitness.
Target Heart Rate
The range of heartbeats per minute (bpm) that individuals should aim for during cardiovascular exercise to achieve specific fitness goals.
VO2 Max
The maximum amount of oxygen a person uses during particularly vigorous exercise to indicate their level of aerobic fitness. This unit is typically listed as milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. People with a higher VO2 max tend to have better cardiovascular fitness and recover faster after exercise.
VO2 max treadmill
A common test for measuring a person's maximum oxygen intake. The heart rate and breathing of a subject are monitored while they are on a treadmill where the intensity is gradually increased until the person reaches a point of exhaustion. Then a metric, VO2 Max, is calculated based on the person's oxygen consumption during the exercise and their body weight.
Zone 2 Training
A level of intensity achieved during workouts that is approximately 60-70 percent of your maximum heart rate. Zone 2 training can improve aerobic capacity, endurance, and fat metabolism. This type of training is also known as aerobic base training or endurance training.
Red Light Therapies
Red light therapies involve exposure to low-level red or near-infrared light wavelengths, typically through devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers. These therapies are thought to have various health benefits, including improved skin health, wound healing, muscle recovery, and pain relief.
Adoptive Cell Therapy
A type of immunotherapy that involves harvesting and modifying a patient's own immune cells, such as T cells or natural killer cells, in a laboratory setting to enhance their ability to target and kill cancer cells. These modified cells are then reintroduced into the patient's body to help combat cancer.
Autophagy
The cellular process which recycles damaged components like proteins, organelles, and pathogens to keep the body's cells in a state of homeostasis. It is regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways and is important for removing cellular debris and maintaining cell health. This processes plays an essential role in development, immunity, and aging.
Brain cleanses your glymphatics
An important function in maintaining brain health and function, the glymphatic system is a network of vessels in the brain that remove waste and toxins. It is most active during sleep.
Cleanses
A dietary practice of restricting certain food groups or exclusively consuming specifics foods to achieve a desired effect to support a person's health or wellness goals. The duration and type of cleanse can range widely but generally they may be employed to improve digestion, boost energy, or achieve a specific, temporary, aesthetic effect.
Dry Fasting
A method of fasting where no food or liquids are consumed. This is a more extreme form of fasting that may have different types of benefits and risks compared to other forms of fasting. The length of dry fasts can range from 12-24 hours and may support detoxification and weight loss.
Enemas (Coffee)
A type of colon cleanse where liquid coffee is introduced to the colon through the rectum in an effort to stimulate enzymes in the body which could support bile duct release, improve digestion, or aid in detoxifying processes of the liver.
Free Radicals
Molecules containing unpaired electron that bind easily to other molecules within the body. They can be produced as byproduct of bodily functions or can be introduced through environmental factors like smoke and radiation. These molecules can damage cells and are a contributor to aging of cells and the development of various diseases.
Gentamicin
A type of antibiotic commonly used to treat bacterial infections. It belongs to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics and works by inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria, thereby killing them.
Liver health
The condition and function of the liver, which is crucial for various metabolic processes, including detoxification, nutrient metabolism, and bile production. Maintaining liver health is important for overall well-being and fitness, as the liver plays a key role in energy metabolism, nutrient storage, and toxin clearance.
Macrophages
A type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system by engulfing and digesting foreign particles, microbes, and cellular debris. They are essential for initiating immune responses, promoting tissue repair, and maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Methods to Detoxify
Methods to detoxify refer to various strategies aimed at eliminating toxins or harmful substances from the body. These methods can include dietary changes, such as increasing water and fiber intake, consuming antioxidant-rich foods, and reducing intake of processed foods and alcohol.
PD-1
A cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T cells, that plays a key role in regulating immune responses. It acts as a checkpoint to prevent excessive immune activation and maintain self-tolerance. Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets PD-1 and is used in cancer immunotherapy to block its inhibitory function, thereby enhancing the immune system's ability to recognize and attack cancer cells.
T cells
T cells, also known as T lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infections and other foreign invaders.
TNF-alpha
A proinflammatory cytokine produced by immune cells in response to infection, inflammation, or injury. It plays a role in regulating immune responses, inflammation, and cell death.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
Immune cells that have migrated from the bloodstream into a tumor.
Hot vs Cold Sleepers
Hot sleepers refer to individuals who tend to feel warmer while sleeping and may sweat more during the night, while cold sleepers tend to feel cooler and may need extra layers or blankets to stay warm. Understanding whether you're a hot or cold sleeper can help you choose appropriate bedding and create a comfortable sleep environment.
NREM Sleep
One of the two main stages of sleep, characterized by reduced brain activity and absence of rapid eye movements. It is divided into three stages, with deeper stages associated with slower brain waves and increased relaxation of the body.
Obstructive sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, leading to pauses in breathing and disrupted sleep patterns. It is often accompanied by symptoms such as loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue.
Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index
A self-report questionnaire used to assess sleep quality and disturbances over a one-month time interval. It evaluates various aspects of sleep, including sleep duration, latency, efficiency, disturbances, and daytime dysfunction.
REM Sleep
One of the stages of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, vivid dreaming, and heightened brain activity. It plays a crucial role in cognitive function, memory consolidation, and emotional processing.
Sleep Chronotypes
Sleep chronotypes refer to individual differences in the timing of sleep-wake patterns, influenced by genetics, biology, and lifestyle factors. Common chronotypes include "morning larks" who prefer early bedtimes and wake times, and "night owls" who prefer later bedtimes and wake times.
Sleep Hygiene
Practices and behaviors that promote healthy sleep patterns and quality. It includes establishing a consistent sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, avoiding stimulants like caffeine close to bedtime, and practicing relaxation techniques to wind down before sleep.
Sleep Optimization
Sleep optimization involves implementing strategies to improve the quantity and quality of sleep for enhanced physical and mental well-being. It includes addressing factors such as sleep environment, bedtime routine, stress management, and sleep disorders.
Tap Water
Water that comes directly from the faucet or municipal water supply system, typically treated for safety and quality.
Creatine Hydrochloride (HCl)
Creatine HCl is a combination of creatine and hydrochloride molecules. Hydrochloride makes the supplement more water-soluble, which makes it more easily absorbed than creatine monohydrate.
Creatine Monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
HTMA (Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis)
Hair-Tissue-Mineral Analysis is a non-invasive pathology test. It measures the levels and comparative ratios of nutrients and toxic minerals found in hair. The results can help identify if a person is deficient in certain critical minerals and can give additional clarity into a person's oxidative rate.
MCT Oil
MCT oil is a supplement made from a type of fat called medium-chain triglycerides. MCT molecules are smaller than those in most of the fats you eat (long-chain triglycerides [LCT]). This makes them easier to digest. You can absorb MCT in your bloodstream quickly. This turns it into energy you can use.
Supplementation
The use of dietary supplements to augment nutrient intake, address deficiencies, or enhance performance.
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) Test
Basic blood test that measures the levels of Apolipoprotein B (apoB) in your blood. Peter Attia is a strong advocate that higher apoB levels are a better indicator of cardiovascular disease vs. the convential test for higher LDL levels.
Biological Age
A person's age, not based on their birth year but determined by their physiological condition and health status. Genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors can play a role in determining biological age and it is measured using various biomarkers. It's possible biological age can differ from chronological age, and there can even be differences in biological age between various organs in the body.
Biome/GI Map
A test that analyzes stool samples to determine the composition of a person's microbiome to provide information about their overall gut health. These tests may indicate the level of diversity and abundance of various components like bacteria, microorganisms and more that are present in the gastrointestinal tract and whether or not these components are in a health balance.
Biotracking
Monitoring the body via devices and lab tests to make decisions about food, exercise, and other lifestyle choices to optimize your body.
Blood Test for Cancer
Sometimes called a liquid biopsy, this is a type of diagnostic test that looks for specific biomarkers that are indicative of cancer. These types of tests are less invasive than a biopsy and can provide beneficial information about the presence and characteristics of cancer cells in the body.
CGM (continuous glucose monitoring)
A method used to track glucose levels in real time throughout the day and night. It involves wearing a small sensor that continuously measures glucose levels in the and provides information about trends and patterns in glucose levels. There are a variety of types of CGM devices available.
DNA Methylation Clock
Deoxyribonucleic Acid methylation clocks are a form of biomarker that use DNA methylation patterns to estimate chronological age or predict biological age. These clocks are based on predictable changes that occur over time in DNA methylation.
DWI (Diffusion-weighted imaging) MRI
Often shortened to DWI, Diffusion-weighted imaging is a specialized form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can detect areas where tissue may be damaged by disease or injury by measuring the movement of water molecules in tissue.
Dexa Scans
Imaging tests used to measure the density and composition of bones. This is achieved using a dual-energy X-Ray machine. These scans can also be used to measure body composition helping people better understand the amount of body fat they possess across the different regions of the body (including visceral fat in the abdomen) along with muscle mass.
Diagnostic
The process of identifying a disease or condition to understand the causes and effects of an illness, disease, or injury. Diagnostic tests can inform decisions on developing a treatment plan.
Epigenetic (Biological) Age Tests
The most accurate, revolutionary, biological age predictor. Biological age is a measurement of your age based on various biomarkers.
Fasting Glucose Test
A type of blood test used to measure glucose following a period of fasting, usually overnight. These tests can be used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or diagnose the condition.
Genetic
The study of how an individual's genetic makeup influences their physical traits, physiological processes, and responses to external factors like exercise and nutrition.
Grail Test
Also known as the Grail liquid biopsy, is a non-invasive blood test designed to detect multiple types of cancer at early stages by analyzing circulating cell-free DNA. It aims to identify cancer-related genetic mutations or alterations in the bloodstream, offering potential for early detection and intervention.
HTMA (Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis)
Hair-Tissue-Mineral Analysis is a non-invasive pathology test. It measures the levels and comparative ratios of nutrients and toxic minerals found in hair. The results can help identify if a person is deficient in certain critical minerals and can give additional clarity into a person's oxidative rate.
Lipoprotein (a) test, known as Lp(a)-P
A useful blood screening tool for diagnosing heart conditions and evaluating the risk of developing vascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common diseases and is considered by Peter Attia to be a pillar of chronic illness. The Lp(a)-P test may be particularly important for individuals with: Past heart disease High LDL cholesterol levels Family history of cardiovascular issues
MRT Food Sensitivity Test
A blood sample screening that tests your blood against 170+ foods to assess which foods are likely causing intestinal inflammation, malabsorption, and permeability that you’ll need to avoid.
MTHFR gene mutation
A genetic variation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which affects the body's ability to process folate (vitamin B9) and convert it into its active form, methylfolate. This mutation can lead to elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood and is associated with various health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and mood disorders.
Metabolic Type
An individual's unique metabolic profile, which is influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and environmental influences. It encompasses variations in energy metabolism, nutrient utilization, and hormone regulation, leading to differences in how the body processes and responds to food, exercise, and other stimuli.
Metabolic Typing Test
An online questionnaire that determines your “Metabolic Type,” which helps to develop the optimal macronutrient diet for your health rebuilding program.
Methylation (MTHFR) Test
This test will provide insight on a gene responsible for converting folic acid to methyl-folate. Your copies of this gene will give you a better idea of your enzyme efficiency and metabolic health.
Mucosal Barrier Assessment
A screening that uses a dried blood sample to provide insights into the degree of intestinal inflammation, protein absorption, and intestinal lining permeability.
Old-man blood
A colloquial term sometimes used to describe blood plasma obtained from older individuals, particularly in the context of medical research or transfusion studies. It may contain factors associated with aging or age-related diseases, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and altered immune function.
Oral glucose toleranace test
A diagnostic test used to assess how the body regulates blood sugar levels over time.
Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index
A self-report questionnaire used to assess sleep quality and disturbances over a one-month time interval. It evaluates various aspects of sleep, including sleep duration, latency, efficiency, disturbances, and daytime dysfunction.
Scans
Scans refer to medical imaging techniques used to visualize internal structures of the body for diagnostic purposes. Common types of scans include X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound.
Scientific Method
A systematic approach used to investigate and understand natural phenomena through observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. It involves making observations, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions based on evidence.
Amyloid Hypothesis
A theory concerning the way Alzheimer's develops proposing that an accumulation of amyloid-beta protein plaques in the brain are the trigger for the degenerative processes underlying Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation of amyloid-beta leads to neural dysfunction, inflammation, and a decline in cognitive faculties.
CRISPR
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a form of technology that allows scientists to edit genes with a high level of precision with relative ease and speed. It has applications in research for treating genetic disorders and developing new therapies.
Cellular Reprogramming
An artificial technique of converting one cell type to another performed in laboratories. A cell's genetic instructions are changed to create new specialized cell types that could be used for research or therapy.
Everolimus
A medication used to treat certain types of cancer. It belongs to a class of drugs known as mTOR inhibitors which restrict cell growth and proliferation. It may be used in the treatment of breast and kidney cancer and certain types of brain tumors.
Ezetimibe
A medication used for lowering cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine, reducing the amount making it into the bloodstream.
Hormone Replacement Therapies
Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) involve the administration of hormones to supplement or replace deficient hormones in the body. These therapies are commonly used to alleviate symptoms associated with hormonal imbalances, such as menopause or hypothyroidism.
Immunotherapy
A type of medical treatment that harnesses the body's immune system to fight diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders. It can involve stimulating the immune system to enhance its ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells or suppressing the immune response to prevent it from attacking healthy tissues.
Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM)
A manual therapy technique used to address soft tissue restrictions and musculoskeletal injuries. It involves the use of specially designed instruments to apply controlled pressure and friction to the skin, muscles, and connective tissues.
Mendelian randomization (MR)
A method used in epidemiology to assess causal relationships between exposures and outcomes by leveraging genetic variants as instrumental variables. It relies on the random allocation of genetic variants during meiosis, which mimics the randomization process in clinical trials.
Metformin
A medication commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. It works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, improving insulin sensitivity in muscle cells, and reducing glucose absorption in the intestines.
PCSK9 inhibitors
A class of medications used to lower LDL cholesterol levels by blocking the action of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that regulates the number of LDL receptors on liver cells. By inhibiting PCSK9, these drugs increase the liver's ability to remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream, reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.
Pembrolizumab
A type of immunotherapy medication known as a PD-1 inhibitor that is used to treat various types of cancer, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and certain types of advanced or metastatic cancers. It works by blocking the PD-1 receptor on immune cells, allowing them to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
Pi3K inhibitors
A class of medications that block the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinases, thereby inhibiting downstream signaling pathways involved in cell growth and survival. They are used in cancer therapy to target aberrant PI3K signaling in tumor cells, potentially slowing tumor growth and promoting cancer cell death.
Quviviq (daridorexant)
Quviviq, also known by its generic name daridorexant, is a medication used to treat insomnia by targeting orexin receptors in the brain, which regulate wakefulness and sleep. It works by blocking the activity of orexin neuropeptides, promoting sleep onset and maintenance without causing next-day drowsiness.
Rapamycin
A medication originally developed as an immunosuppressant drug but has also been studied for its potential anti-aging effects. It inhibits the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, which regulates cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism.
Regeneration Medicine
A multidisciplinary field focused on developing therapies to repair, replace, or regenerate damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It encompasses approaches such as stem cell therapy, tissue engineering, and gene therapy to promote tissue repair and regeneration.
Rosuvastatin
A medication belonging to the statin class used to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It works by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which is involved in cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
Senolytics
A class of drugs or compounds that target and eliminate senescent cells, which are aged or damaged cells that have stopped dividing and accumulate in tissues with age. By clearing senescent cells, senolytics have the potential to delay aging-related decline, improve tissue function, and enhance overall healthspan.
Statins
A class of medications commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke.
TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin)
A clinical trial aimed at testing the effects of metformin, a commonly used diabetes medication, on aging-related outcomes and age-related diseases.
Trazodone
A medication primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. It belongs to the class of drugs known as serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs), which modulate serotonin levels in the brain.
Xanax
A brand name for a proprietary formula of the drug alprazolam. Xanax is often prescribed to treat anxiety and depression. It belongs to a class of medications known as benzodiazepines which enhance the effects of the neurotransmitters in the brain that promote relaxation.
Amyloid Hypothesis
A theory concerning the way Alzheimer's develops proposing that an accumulation of amyloid-beta protein plaques in the brain are the trigger for the degenerative processes underlying Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation of amyloid-beta leads to neural dysfunction, inflammation, and a decline in cognitive faculties.
Readiness
Readiness in the context of fitness refers to the state of physical and mental preparedness for exercise or activity. It encompasses factors such as adequate rest, hydration, nutrition, and mental focus, as well as the absence of injuries or fatigue.
Autonomic Nervous System
A subset of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary functions in the body like breathing rate, digestion, and heart rate. The Autonomic Nervous system helps maintain homeostasis by regulating organ function in the human body.
Ayurveda
An ancient medicine system with origins in India. It takes a holistic approach to health recommending practices of herbal medicine, dietary guidelines, yoga, meditation and more. The core tenets of Ayurveda support balancing the body, mind and spirit to improve health and prevent disease.
Disposable Soma
A theory in biology that asserts organisms prioritize reproduction over other core functions with negative consequences for maintaining homeostasis. This theory believes there is limited energy stores that must be shared between growth, reproduction, and maintenance of the body (soma).
Dynamic neuromuscular stabilization
A form of rehabilitation that endeavoring to activate a patient's innate stabilization system to restore optimal movement. It emphasizes the importance of proper posture, breaking, and movement patterns for optimal function.
Oxidative Rate
Oxidative rate refers to the speed at which oxidative processes occur in the body, including the production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals. It reflects the balance between the body's antioxidant defenses and the generation of oxidative stress.
Parasympathic nervous system
One of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system, responsible for conserving energy and promoting restful activities such as digestion, relaxation, and recovery. It works in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's fight-or-flight response.
Sympathetic
The part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for activating the body's "fight or flight" response to stress or danger.
Sympathetic nervous system
One of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions. It is responsible for mobilizing the body's resources during times of stress or arousal, preparing it for "fight or flight" responses.
Cleaners
A product or substance that can be use do disinfect surfaces. Cleaners are generally designed to remove dirt, germs, and other contaminants in an area.
Household Products
Items used within the home for cleaning, maintenance, or personal care purposes. They include a wide range of products such as cleaning agents, laundry detergents, personal hygiene products, and air fresheners.
Soaps / Creams
Topical products used for skincare, often containing cleansing agents, moisturizers, and other active ingredients.
Ayurveda
An ancient medicine system with origins in India. It takes a holistic approach to health recommending practices of herbal medicine, dietary guidelines, yoga, meditation and more. The core tenets of Ayurveda support balancing the body, mind and spirit to improve health and prevent disease.
Cellular Medicine
The study of how cells function and interact with each other during times of health and disease in order to develop new therapies and treatments.
Xenohormesis Hypothesis
This a school of thought that suggests consuming compounds produced by other species who are in a stressed state could have beneficial effects. The idea is that there are universal adaptations that occur, regardless of species, when an organism is stressed, and an individual may be able to trigger a beneficial stress response if they consume xenohormentins that are released when another lifeform is in a stressed state. This has been studied with plant derived compounds being consumed by humans.
20th percentile telomeres PBMC
A metric that can provide insight into cellular aging and associated health implications, 20th percentile telomeres PBMC refer to the length of telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) compared to 20 percent of a specific population. Telomeres are a type of nucleotide sequence found at the end of chromosomes, which deteriorate with age, fusing with their neighbors.
ALT
Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the liver. When ALT levels are high in a blood test it may indicate some form of liver damage or disease.
Apolipoprotein A
Apolipoprotein A (apoA) is a protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, often referred to as the "good cholesterol." It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids and cholesterol, including the transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion, a process known as reverse cholesterol transport.
Apolipoprotein B (apoB)
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a protein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, often referred to as the "bad cholesterol." It plays a key role in the transport of cholesterol from the liver to peripheral tissues, where it can contribute to the formation of arterial plaque. Peter Attia is a strong advocate that higher apoB levels are a better indicator of cardiovascular disease vs. the convential test for LDL levels.
Arterial Plaque
Arterial plaque, also known as atherosclerotic plaque or atheroma, refers to the buildup of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances within the walls of arteries. Too much of this can lead to hardening and narrowing of the arteries increasing the risk factor for heart attacks and strokes.
BMI
A measure of body fat calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. BMI does not directly measure body fat or account for how it is distributed or balanced between muscle mass, so it's classification categories of underweight, normal, overweight, or obese, may not be helpful for all body types.
Body Fat
The amount of fat tissue in the body, usually displayed as a percentage of total body weight. Excess fat can lead to health problems like cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but body fat is essential for storing energy and maintaining essential body functions. There are various methods for measuring body fat including bioelectrical impedance, (which is common on at-home smart scales and some fitness wearables), calipers, dual-energy Xray absorptiometry, and underwater weighing.
Cholesterol (total)
The sum of all types of cholesterol in a person's body. This total is derived from adding low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, and VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. It can be used to assess a person's risk for heart disease.
DHEA
Dehydroepiandrosterone is a type of hormone serving as a precursor to testosterone and estrogen. In humans, this hormone is produced in the adrenal glands and peaks in early adulthood. DHEA supplements attempt to replenish DHEA levels that decline with age.
Fasting plasma glucose
The level of glucose (sugar) in the blood that still remains after an overnight fast of at least 8 hours. It can be used as a biomarker for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels. If this level is 126 milligrams per deciliter or higher it could indicate a person has diabetes.
Foam cells
A type of macrophage (white blood cell) that plays a key role in the development of plaque in the arteries. Foam cells engulf low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
Free Testosterone Index
A measurement of free testosterone levels in the body, which calculates the value of biologically unbound testosterone in the bloodstream. To get a person's index score, the total testosterone level is multiplied by a factor adjusting for the binding capacity of sex hormone-binding globulin, which binds testosterone in the blood.
GGT
Gamma-glutamyltransferase is an enzyme found in the liver which plays a role in metabolizing the antioxidant glutathione. It can be is used as a relevant biomarker oto gauge liver health. High levels in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease.
Ghrelin
A hormone primarily produced by the stomach that regulates appetite and energy balance. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because its levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. Ghrelin also plays a role in regulating growth hormone secretion, metabolism, and body composition.
Glutathione
An antioxidant that is produced naturally within the body playing a crucial role in protecting cells from damage related to free radicals and oxidative stress. Glutathione also supports DNA synthesis, immune response, and detoxification. Because of its multifaceted health benefits it is a popular health supplement.
Glycogen
A complex carbohydrate that serves as a form of stored energy in the body, primarily in the liver and muscles. During periods of rest or low energy demand, excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored for later use.
Grip Strength Dominant
The maximum amount of strength or pressure that can be exerted from a person's dominant hand. This metric can be measured using a hand dynamometer.
Grip Strength Non-dominant
The maximum amount of strength or pressure that can be exerted from a person's non-dominant hand. This metric can be measured using a hand dynamometer.
Growth Hormone (HGH)
A peptide hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in growth, development, metabolism, and tissue repair.
HDL
High-density lipoprotein is the "good" type of cholesterol. It helps expel excess cholesterol from the bloodstream by transporting cholesterol tissues back to the liver where it can be processed and removed from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol is associated with lower risks of heart disease.
HRV
A measure of the variation in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. It reflects the balance between the sympathetic (fight-or-flight) and parasympathetic (rest-and-digest) branches of the autonomic nervous system and is often used as an indicator of overall health and fitness.
HbA1C
Hemoglobin A1c (shortened to HbA1C) is a measurement of blood glucose control over a long period of time. By measuring the percentage of hemoglobin that has glucose attached to it over a period of two or three months an average blood glucose level is determined. This metric can be used to monitor and diagnose diabetes.
IGF-1
Insulin-like growth factor 1 is a type of hormone that is similar to insulin. In children it contributes to their grown and development and in adults it promotes muscle and bone growth. When IGF-1 exists at abnormal levels it can be indicative of a variety of health issues including cancer.
Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels. It helps facilitate the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for future use.
LDL
LDL cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a type of cholesterol that can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaque. High levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke.
Melatonin
A hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. It's often referred to as the "sleep hormone" because its secretion increases in response to darkness, promoting relaxation and sleepiness.
Nuclease
An enzyme that cleaves the phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides in nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, as well as RNA processing and degradation.
PSA
Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by the prostate gland. It can be measured through blood tests as a screening tool for prostate cancer. However, high PSA levels may also indicate an enlarged or inflamed prostate leading to over/misdiagnosis.
RDW
Red cell distribution width is a measure in the variations of sizes of red blood cells. This can be determined with a complete blood count and can be used to diagnose various conditions including various vitamin deficiencies.
SHBG
Sex hormone-binding globulin, is a protein produced by the liver that binds tightly to three sex hormones: testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol. This binding regulates the activity and availability of these hormones in the body. Changes in SHBG levels can impact the amount of free testosterone in the body, which can affect various aspects of health.
Sirtuins
A family of proteins that regulate various cellular processes, including metabolism, DNA repair, inflammation, and stress response. They are involved in cellular longevity and have been implicated in the aging process and age-related diseases.
TOR (target of rapamycin)
A protein kinase involved in regulating cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy in response to nutrient and energy availability.
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulate the thyroid gland to produce hormones that are used in metabolism, growth and balancing the body's energy levels. These can be measured with a blood test to assess thyroid function.
Target Heart Rate
The range of heartbeats per minute (bpm) that individuals should aim for during cardiovascular exercise to achieve specific fitness goals.
Testosterone
Testosterone is a hormone produced in the testicles (or in smaller amount in ovaries) and adrenal glands playing a key role in reproductive tissues and development as well as supporting libido, energy, muscle mass, bone density, and growth of body hair.
Triglycerides
A type of fat stored in fat cells that is released between meals to energize your body. High levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream can increase the risk for heart disease and stroke.
Uric Acid
A waste product formed from the breakdown of purines, compounds found in certain foods and tissues. Hyperuricemia happens if too much uric acid stays in your body. Hyperuricemia causes uric acid to clump together in sharp crystals. These crystals can settle in your joints and cause gout, a painful form of arthritis. They can also build up in your kidneys and form kidney stones.
Urolithin A
produced by our gut bacteria after eating foods rich in ellagitannins
VLDLs (very low density lipoproteins)
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a protein type responsible for transporting triglycerides (fat) through the bloodstream. It can contribute to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, increasing risk of heart disease, so it is classified as a "bad" cholesterol.
VO2 Max
The maximum amount of oxygen a person uses during particularly vigorous exercise to indicate their level of aerobic fitness. This unit is typically listed as milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. People with a higher VO2 max tend to have better cardiovascular fitness and recover faster after exercise.
VO2 max treadmill
A common test for measuring a person's maximum oxygen intake. The heart rate and breathing of a subject are monitored while they are on a treadmill where the intensity is gradually increased until the person reaches a point of exhaustion. Then a metric, VO2 Max, is calculated based on the person's oxygen consumption during the exercise and their body weight.
WBC
An abbreviation for white blood cell a vital part of the human immune system. White blood cells are also known as leukocytes.
hsCRP
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a biomarker of inflammation in the body. Elevated hsCRP could indicate a person is at risk of health disease. This can be tested with a simple blood test.
mTor
A protein kinase that plays a central role in regulating cellular metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. It acts as a sensor of nutrients, growth factors, and energy status within the cell.
Aligning Sleep to Chronotype
Individuals can generally be categorized into different chronotypes based on their circadian rhythms (night owls or early risers). Identifying your chronotype and aligning your schedule to support your body's natural sleep habits can improve energy during your waking hours, benefit recovery, and enhance mood and overall well being.
Brain glucose metabolism
A complex biochemical process through which the brain uses glucose from the bloodstream and converts it into energy. The chemical reactions involved in this process are known as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. People with diabetes may have disruptions to their brain glucose metabolism causing health issues.
Cellular Medicine
The study of how cells function and interact with each other during times of health and disease in order to develop new therapies and treatments.
Cellular Regeneration
An essential process for maintaining overall health where depleted or damaged cells are replaced by new cells in tissues and organs. Cells can become damaged from disease, injury, or age, and cellular regeneration occurs through cell division when certain triggers are activated in the body indicating a need.
Cholesterol Efflux
Cholesterol efflux is a process by where excess cholesterol is removed from cells and transported back to the liver for excretion. This helps maintain cholesterol balance in the body and is important for cardiovascular health.
Chronotypes
Chronotypes refer to individual differences in the timing of biological rhythms, particularly the sleep-wake cycle. People are classified into chronotypes based on whether they are naturally early risers (morning people), night owls (evening types), or somewhere in between.
Circadian Rhythm
A person's natural wake and sleep cycle. External factors like light and darkness play a role in determining the timing of an individual's circadian rhythm which repeats every 24 hours, approximately. A person's circadian rhythm plays a crucial role in hormone release, metabolism, and other physiological processes.
Detoxification
The removal or neutralizing of toxic substances within the human body. Within humans, the liver, kidneys, and lungs are all essential for removing toxins from metabolic waste, chemicals, and other potentially toxic substances.
Digestion
The process of breaking down food so the body can absorb nutrients. Various mechanical and chemical processes between the mouth, stomac, and intestines are part of the digestion process.
Diurnal
Refers to processes that occur or are active during the day or exhibit a daily cycle.
Energy
A product of the body's cells achieved through metabolism of nutrients resulting in the process that fuels a person's physical activities and the body's daily functions.
Exdifferentiation
The processes where a specialized cell changes states to become less differentiated and possibly support more processes, like a stem cell.
Fat Storage
This occurs when the body's intake of food exceeds the amount required to compensate for a day's energy expenditure. The body stores this excess in deposits of fat within tissue for future use.
Foam cells
A type of macrophage (white blood cell) that plays a key role in the development of plaque in the arteries. Foam cells engulf low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
Ghrelin
A hormone primarily produced by the stomach that regulates appetite and energy balance. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because its levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. Ghrelin also plays a role in regulating growth hormone secretion, metabolism, and body composition.
Glucose metabolism
The processes by which the body breaks down glucose, a simple sugar, to produce energy. This energy is essential for powering various physiological functions, including muscle contraction during exercise. Efficient glucose metabolism is crucial for maintaining optimal energy levels and supporting physical activity.
Heart Coherence
is a state in which all our systems — physical, mental, and emotional — are working in harmony. It allows us to feel peaceful, spacious, and calm. And research has shown that when we broadcast this energy to others, it affects their coherence too.
Heart Health
The overall condition and function of the heart and cardiovascular system. It involves factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, heart rate, and the health of blood vessels.
Hormesis
A biological phenomenon where exposure to low doses of a stressor or toxin can result in beneficial effects, such as improved resilience and health.
Immunity
The body's ability to defend itself against harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. It involves the complex interplay of various components of the immune system, including white blood cells, antibodies, and lymphoid organs.
Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels. It helps facilitate the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for future use.
Insulin Sensitivity vs. Insulin Resistance
Insulin sensitivity refers to how efficiently cells respond to insulin signals to take up glucose from the bloodstream. Higher insulin sensitivity means cells are more responsive to insulin, leading to better blood sugar control. Conversely, insulin resistance occurs when cells become less responsive to insulin, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels.
LDL Receptors
LDL receptors are proteins found on the surface of cells, particularly liver cells, that help regulate cholesterol levels in the bloodstream by removing LDL cholesterol from circulation. They bind to LDL particles and facilitate their uptake into cells, where the cholesterol can be metabolized or stored.
Leptin
A hormone produced by fat cells that helps regulate appetite and energy balance by signaling to the brain when the body has enough stored energy (fat). It plays a key role in the body's long-term regulation of body weight and metabolism.
Lipoproteins
Complex particles composed of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) and proteins that transport fats throughout the body in the bloodstream. They play a crucial role in lipid metabolism, including the transport of cholesterol to and from cells.
Mitochondria
Organelles found in cells that are often referred to as the "powerhouses" because they generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called cellular respiration. They play a critical role in aerobic metabolism, producing the majority of the body's ATP.
Mitochondrial biogenesis
Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase the number and/or size of mitochondria in response to physiological stimuli such as exercise, calorie restriction, or cold exposure. It involves the replication of mitochondrial DNA and the synthesis of new mitochondrial proteins.
Nervous System
Includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. The nervous system controls and coordinates bodily functions, including movement, sensation, cognition, and emotion. Fitness enthusiasts should prioritize nervous system health as it is essential for optimal performance, coordination, reaction time, and overall well-being.
Orexin
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus that plays a key role in regulating wakefulness, arousal, and appetite. It helps promote alertness and maintain wakefulness during the day, while also influencing food intake and energy balance.
Oxidative
"Oxidative" refers to processes involving the addition or removal of oxygen atoms from molecules, often resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals. These reactive molecules can cause damage to cells and tissues through oxidative stress, which has been implicated in various health conditions, including aging, inflammation, and chronic diseases.
Oxidative Rate
Oxidative rate refers to the speed at which oxidative processes occur in the body, including the production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals. It reflects the balance between the body's antioxidant defenses and the generation of oxidative stress.
Oxidative Stress
A screening that uses a dried urine sample to provide insights into digestion, detoxification, and oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is considered to play an important role in accelerating aging and cancer, and can be detected by the biomarker, 8-OHdG.
PI3-kinases
A family of enzymes involved in cellular signaling pathways that regulate various processes such as cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism. They play a crucial role in insulin signaling, nutrient sensing, and protein synthesis in response to growth factors and hormones.
Redifferentiation
The process by which cells regain their specialized functions and characteristics after dedifferentiation or loss of maturity. It is a critical aspect of tissue repair and regeneration, particularly in response to injury or disease.
Sex Hormone
Chemical messengers produced primarily by the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) as well as the adrenal glands. They play a vital role in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.
Somatic Cells
Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells (sperm and eggs). They make up the tissues and organs of the body and are responsible for carrying out its functions.
Stem Cells
Undifferentiated cells with the ability to develop into various specialized cell types in the body. They play a crucial role in tissue repair, regeneration, and growth.
Stress Hormone
Chemicals produced by the body in response to stressors, such as physical or psychological stress. Examples include cortisol, adrenaline (epinephrine), and noradrenaline (norepinephrine).
TOR (target of rapamycin)
A protein kinase involved in regulating cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy in response to nutrient and energy availability.
Visceral fat
The fat stored within the abdominal cavity, surrounding vital organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines.
AMPK
AMPK is sometimes described as the metabolism's "master switch" and is an enzyme that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy balance. It is activated in response to low energy levels in the cell, as indicated by an increase in the ratio of AMP (adenosine monophosphate) to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which are molecules that store and release energy, respectively. When activated, AMPK helps to restore energy balance by promoting processes that generate ATP, such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation, while inhibiting energy-consuming processes, such as protein synthesis and cell growth.
Aducanumab
A type of enzyme produced in the liver which can help with tissue repair. It is being studied for its potential role in treating osteoarthritis because it may inhibit enzymes that break down cartilage in joints.
Alpha-2 Macroglobulin (A2M)
A type of enzyme produced in the liver which can help with tissue repair. It is being studied for its potential role in treating osteoarthritis because it may inhibit enzymes that break down cartilage in joints.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the number of calories you burn as your body performs basic (basal) life-sustaining function. Commonly also termed as Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), which is the calories burned if you stayed in bed all day.
Cardiovascular
The term used to describe the heart, blood vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries that make up our circulatory system.
Cell
The basic structural unit of all living organisms and are the building blocks of tissues and organs in the human body. Cells have an exterior membrane within which genetic material (DNA) and organelles carry out specific functions like energy production, waste disposal, protein synthesis and more.
Endothelium
The thin layer of cells lining interior surfaces of blood vessels and the heart. It plays a critical role in regulating blood flow and the movement of substances between the bloodstream and nearby tissues.
Enzyme
A type of protein, essential for maintaining life, that speeds up chemical reactions in organisms.
Germ Cells
A type of cell that gives rise to gametes (sperm cells in males and egg cells in females) during sexual reproduction. These cells are responsible for transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next.
Glycogen
A complex carbohydrate that serves as a form of stored energy in the body, primarily in the liver and muscles. During periods of rest or low energy demand, excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored for later use.
Hemoglobin
A protein found in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body's tissues and organs. It binds to oxygen in the lungs and releases it as needed in other parts of the body.
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Your resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of energy (calories) your body burns while at rest. It is one of three components of your total metabolic rate, comprising of 70 percent of your body's daily energy expenditure, Boyd says. The RMR test is a simple, non-invasive test that determines your RMR.
Somatic Cells
Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells (sperm and eggs). They make up the tissues and organs of the body and are responsible for carrying out its functions.
Visceral fat
The fat stored within the abdominal cavity, surrounding vital organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines.
CRISPR
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a form of technology that allows scientists to edit genes with a high level of precision with relative ease and speed. It has applications in research for treating genetic disorders and developing new therapies.
Cellular Reprogramming
An artificial technique of converting one cell type to another performed in laboratories. A cell's genetic instructions are changed to create new specialized cell types that could be used for research or therapy.
DAF-16/FOXO
A protein that regulates the copying of RNA in gene-building which plays a key role in longevity and stress resistance in certain organisms. A particular type of worm used in aging research called Caenorhabditis elegans have shown DAF-16/FOXO may extend lifespan in these organisms. In humans FOXO proteins also regulate a variety of cellular processes.
DNA Methylation Clock
Deoxyribonucleic Acid methylation clocks are a form of biomarker that use DNA methylation patterns to estimate chronological age or predict biological age. These clocks are based on predictable changes that occur over time in DNA methylation.
DNA methylation
Deoxyribonucleic Acid methylation is a form of DNA modification where a methyl group is added to a cytosine base. These modifications are involved in various biological processes and can regulate gene expression without changing the DNA sequence itself.
Deacetylation
A process where an acetyl group is removed from a molecule. By altering the structure of this molecule (usually a protein involved in packaging DNA) the function of a gene is altered.
Demethylation
A process for removing a methyl group from a DNA molecule to regulate cellular function and gene expression. This can occur through enzymatic processes.
Epigenetic
The study of changes in gene expression that aren't caused by the DNA sequence. These types of changes can have significant impact on health and disease risk and are influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle choices.
Epigenetic (Biological) Age Tests
The most accurate, revolutionary, biological age predictor. Biological age is a measurement of your age based on various biomarkers.
Epigenetic Noise
Random variation in epigenetic markers that can occur between cells of the same type and even between cells of the same organism. These markers could be DNA methylation and histone modifications and this can play a role in development, aging, and disease.
Histone acetylation
A chemical modification of histone proteins, which are involved in DNA packaging and gene regulation. Acetylation of histones typically results in a more open chromatin structure, allowing for easier access of transcription factors to DNA and increased gene expression.
Histones
Proteins found in the cell nucleus that help package and organize DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling access to the DNA.
Methylation
A biochemical process that involves the addition of a methyl group (CH3) to DNA, proteins, or other molecules, which can influence their function and activity. It plays a crucial role in gene expression, cellular signaling, and metabolism.
Mutation
A mutation refers to a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors such as radiation, chemicals, or viruses.
Nucleic Acids
Large biomolecules essential for the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information in living organisms. They include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), which consist of nucleotide building blocks.
Nucleolus
A substructure found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosome assembly occur. It is involved in the production of ribosomes, which are essential for protein synthesis.
PSEN1 mutation
A genetic variation in the presenilin-1 gene, which is associated with an increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. This mutation affects the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid beta peptides, leading to the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.
PTEN gene
PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog) gene encodes for a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor, regulating cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Mutations or alterations in the PTEN gene can lead to dysregulation of cell signaling pathways, contributing to the development of various cancers and other diseases.
RNA
A molecule involved in various cellular processes, including protein synthesis, gene expression, and regulation of cellular functions. It is composed of nucleotide building blocks and exists in different forms, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Telomere Length - endcap on your DNA
Repetitive sequences of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes, serving as protective caps that prevent DNA damage and degradation during cell division.
Transcription
The process by which genetic information stored in DNA is converted into messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries instructions for protein synthesis from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Transcription factors
Proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA).
Translation
The process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded by ribosomes to synthesize proteins.
Waddington's Landscape
A concept in development biology proposed by Conrad Waddington in the 1950s which likens cell differentiation to a ball rolling down hills and valleys. It highlights how pluripotent cells (ones with the ability to differentiate) may adapt during development based on the environment or circumstances they encounter. This attempts to explain how cells can become specialized during development and the processes that influence this. The concept is also known as Waddington's epigenetic landscape.
Cancer
The growth of cells in an uncontrolled manner. Clusters of cancerous cells can create masses or tumors and can spread throughout the body via metastasis.
Cellular Senescence
A normal part of the aging process where cells stop dividing. This process can be triggered by various factors including DNA damage, oxidative stress, or inflammation which puts a cell in a state of growth arrest. Cellular Senescence may be a contributor to age-related diseases.
Central Adiposity
the accumulation of fat around the abdomen and waist. It is also known as abdominal obesity or visceral fat and is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
EMF
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a form of low-level radiation produced by electrically charged objects. These fields can be produced by household appliances, personal electronics, or power lines and are generally classified as either low energy or high energy depending on their frequency.
Environmental / Chemical
External influences that may play a role, for better or worse, on a person's health. Often these terms could be used to refer to toxins or chemicals that may have wide-ranging implications for a person's health.
Folic Acid
A water-soluble vitamin that is essential for key functions related to cell division, DNA synthesis, and the formation of red blood cells. It can be taken as a supplement or found naturally in leafy greens, legumes, and fruits. It is man-made and can cause adverse reactions to people with MTHFR genetic mutation.
Free Radicals
Molecules containing unpaired electron that bind easily to other molecules within the body. They can be produced as byproduct of bodily functions or can be introduced through environmental factors like smoke and radiation. These molecules can damage cells and are a contributor to aging of cells and the development of various diseases.
Glioblastoma
An aggressive type of brain cancer that arises from glial cells in the brain. It is the most common and deadliest form of brain tumor in adults. Glioblastoma can affect various aspects of neurological function and requires prompt and intensive treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Hypertension
Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a condition characterized by elevated pressure in the arteries. It's a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke.
Inflammation from Food sensitivities
The body's immune response to certain foods that it perceives as harmful. This immune reaction can lead to inflammation in various tissues and organs, contributing to symptoms such as bloating, joint pain, fatigue, and skin issues.
Intestinal Inflammation
Inflammation in the digestive tract, specifically in the intestines. It can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune conditions, and dietary sensitivities.
Lp(a)
A type of lipoprotein that is similar to LDL cholesterol but also contains a protein called apolipoprotein(a). Elevated levels of Lp(a) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Metabolic Syndrome
A cluster of conditions characterized by abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, abnormal lipid levels (e.g., high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol), and insulin resistance. It significantly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and other health complications.
Metabolic dysfunction
Abnormalities or dysregulation in metabolic processes, such as energy production, nutrient metabolism, and hormone regulation. It can manifest in various ways, including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance.
Multiple myeloma
A cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. It is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of plasma cells, leading to the production of excessive monoclonal antibodies and the infiltration of bone tissue.
NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
A condition characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver in people who consume little or no alcohol. It encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis) to more severe forms such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis.
NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis)
A severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by liver inflammation and damage in addition to fat accumulation. It can progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver failure if left untreated.
Neurodegenerative Diseases
A group of disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and/or spinal cord. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Noncalcified plaques
Noncalcified plaques are deposits of cholesterol, fat, and other substances that accumulate within the walls of arteries but do not contain calcium deposits. They are considered an early stage of atherosclerosis and can lead to the narrowing or blockage of arteries, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke.
Obstructive sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, leading to pauses in breathing and disrupted sleep patterns. It is often accompanied by symptoms such as loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue.
PSEN1 mutation
A genetic variation in the presenilin-1 gene, which is associated with an increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. This mutation affects the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid beta peptides, leading to the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.
PTEN gene
PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog) gene encodes for a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor, regulating cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Mutations or alterations in the PTEN gene can lead to dysregulation of cell signaling pathways, contributing to the development of various cancers and other diseases.
Pathogens
Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that can cause disease in humans and other organisms. They can be transmitted through various routes, including air, water, food, bodily fluids, and direct contact with infected individuals.
Prediabetes
A condition characterized by blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. It is considered a warning sign that indicates an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen species are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen atoms that can damage cellular structures such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. They are produced as natural byproducts of metabolism, particularly during periods of increased oxidative stress, such as intense exercise.
Senescence
describes the group of deleterious effects that lead to a decrease in the efficient functioning of an organism with increasing age and to an increased probability of death.
Soft plaques
Soft plaques are early-stage atherosclerotic lesions in the walls of arteries that are characterized by a high lipid content and a thin fibrous cap. Unlike stable or hard plaques, which have a more calcified and stable structure, soft plaques are considered unstable and more prone to rupture. The rupture of a soft plaque can lead to the formation of a blood clot that can block the artery, potentially leading to a heart attack or stroke.
Syndrome X
Syndrome X, also known as metabolic syndrome, is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Telomere Loss
Telomere loss refers to the shortening of telomeres, which are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each cell division. This is occurs as a natural part of aging. but can be exacerbated by oxidative stress or DNA damage. Telomere loss is associated with many age-related conditions.
The 4 Hourseman
Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiovascular/Heart Disease, Dementia/Alzheimers
Type 2 Diabetes
A chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels.
Vascular dementia
A type of dementia caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, typically resulting from conditions such as stroke, small vessel disease, or other vascular disorders.
Virus
A microscopic infectious agent that replicates inside living cells of organisms. It can cause a wide range of diseases, from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as influenza, HIV/AIDS, and COVID-19.
Allele
One of many potential versions of a gene. Each allele has a specific variation in its DNA sequence.
Antagonistic Pleiotropy
An evolutionary explanation for aging proposed by George C. Williams, who theorizes that a gene that reduces lifespan in late life can be selected for if its early benefits outweigh its late costs.
Base
The genetic code for DNA is made up of four chemicals, A (adenine), C (cytosine), T (thymine), and G (guanine), and these letters are chemical groups called bases or nucleobases. RNA has a base called uracil (U), instead of thymine.
Base Pair
These are the "teeth" on the twisted "zipper" of DNA. Each strand of DNA is made up of bases that run in different directions, with bases attracting their opposite chemical partner to make a pair: cytosine pairs with guanine, and adenine pairs with thymine, except for in RNA, where it's paired with uracil.
Chromatin
Strands of DNA wound around protein scaffolds known as histones. Euchromatin is open chromatin that allows genes to be switched on. Heterochromatin is closed chromatin that prevents the cell from reading a gene, also known as gene silencing.
Chromosome
The carriers of genetic information within the body. These thread-like structures are composed of DNA and proteins that determine an organism's traits. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome in each pair is inherited from each parent.
Complementary
Describes any two DNA or RNA sequences that can form a series of base pairs with each other. Each base forms a bond with a complementary partner: T (in DNA) and U (in RNA) bond with A, and C bonds with G.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule located in the cell nucleus that contains genetic instructions for the development of all known living things. Its structure is that of a double helix that is made up of nucleotides (each containing a sugar), phosphate groups, and a nitrogenous base of either adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine).
DNA Double-Strand Break
A type of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) damage where both strands of a DNA molecule are broken. They can be repaired by specialized cellular mechanisms and can occur spontaneously during normal cell processes or can be triggered by radiation or exposure to certain chemicals.
Extrachromosomal Ribosomal DNA Circle
Small, circular, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) molecules found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells contain ribosomal DNA sequences. These are thought to be byproducts of rDNA replication and recombination and have implications for their possible role in age-related diseases.
Gene
A unit of heredity that is responsible for transmitting traits from parents to offspring. These traits can include physical characteristics like eye color, height, and hair texture, as well as susceptibility to certain diseases or conditions. Genes are made up of DNA and are located on chromosomes within the nucleus of cells. They serve as the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. In the context of fitness, genes can influence factors such as metabolism, muscle growth, and response to exercise.
Gene Expression
The process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, typically a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps, including transcription (where the gene's DNA sequence is copied into a messenger RNA molecule) and translation (where the mRNA is used as a template to build a specific protein)
Gene Therapy
A medical approach aimed at treating or preventing diseases by modifying or manipulating the expression of a person's genes. This can involve introducing a functional gene into the body to replace a faulty one, repairing a mutated gene, or modulating the expression of specific genes to achieve a therapeutic effect.
Genetically Modified Organism
An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. This manipulation typically involves the insertion, deletion, or modification of specific genes to introduce new traits or enhance existing ones. In the context of fitness and nutrition, GMOs can be engineered to produce foods with improved nutritional profiles, increased resistance to pests or diseases, or other desirable characteristics.
Genome
The complete set of genetic material (DNA in most organisms, RNA in some viruses) within an organism. It contains all the information necessary for the development, growth, and functioning of that organism.
Genomics
The branch of molecular biology that focuses on the study of genomes, including their structure, function, evolution, and interactions within and between organisms.
MTHFR gene mutation
A genetic variation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which affects the body's ability to process folate (vitamin B9) and convert it into its active form, methylfolate. This mutation can lead to elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood and is associated with various health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and mood disorders.
Methylation (MTHFR) Test
This test will provide insight on a gene responsible for converting folic acid to methyl-folate. Your copies of this gene will give you a better idea of your enzyme efficiency and metabolic health.
Ribosomal DNA
The DNA sequences that encode for ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the molecular machinery involved in protein synthesis. rDNA is found in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells and is critical for the production of ribosomes, which are essential for cellular function and protein synthesis.
Strand
In the context of DNA or RNA, a strand refers to a single linear chain of nucleotides that carries genetic information. DNA consists of two complementary strands that form a double helix structure, while RNA is typically single-stranded.
Adaptogens
Adaptogens are natural substances, such as herbs and roots, that are believed to help the body adapt to stress and exert a normalizing effect on bodily processes. They are thought to work by supporting the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and cope with external stressors, such as physical or mental stress.
Amino Acids
The chemical building block of proteins. Amino acids join together into a chain that folds into a protein.
Ashwagandha
An adaptogenic herb that has been used in traditional medicine in Ayurvedic practices for its purported benefits for reducing stress, improving focus, boosting energy, and overall well-being.
Carbohydrates
An essential component present in most foods that is a major energy source for the body. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (alongside fats and protein) and can be found in higher levels in grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Carbohydrates can be further categorized into three classes: sugars, starches, and fiber.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is found in all cells of the body. It is important for the production of hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help digest food. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Collagen
A type of protein that is found within connective tissues, tendons, ligaments, and bones. It provides strength and structure to the skin to maintain integrity of tissues and organs. Collagen production naturally declines with age. While there are several types of collagen supplements, not every type of collagen can be metabolised easily by the body.
Creatine
A naturally-occuring substance found in muscles that can help produce energy when the muscles are under stress, like during a workout. Creatine is a common supplement that many people use to improve athletic performance or build muscle mass, however not every form of creatine can be easily absorbed by the body. Dr. Jose Antonio and co-author Victoria Ciccone reported in a 2013 issue of The Journal of The International Society of Nutrition that there wasn't any significant difference between the two groups for lean mass gains, body fat, or muscle strength. However, when they ran some much weaker statistical correlations, there was evidence that taking creatine post-workout was more effective on lean muscle gains and muscle strength.
Creatine Hydrochloride (HCl)
Creatine HCl is a combination of creatine and hydrochloride molecules. Hydrochloride makes the supplement more water-soluble, which makes it more easily absorbed than creatine monohydrate.
Creatine Monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
Cytokines
A type of cellular-level proteins that help cells communicate. They are particularly important for immunity as they can regulate the way your body responds to disease, infection, or injury, and they can be produced in various cells in the body.
DHA
Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that supports many cognitive and cardiovascular functions. It is a major structural component of the human brain and we need to replenish DHA through our diet to support cognitive function, visual development, and heart health. It can be found in fatty fish like salmon or taken as a supplement.
Enzyme
A type of protein, essential for maintaining life, that speeds up chemical reactions in organisms.
Ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid E-EPA)
Ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) is based on a type of omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil that is sometimes used as a dietary supplement. People who use this are attempting to improve cardiovascular health or reduce inflammation.
Fats
Organic molecules that are soluble in solvents, but not in water. Fats are important for energy storage, forming cell membranes, and insulation. They can be further classified as saturated, unsaturated, or trans fats which is based on their chemical structure, which can contribute to how easily they can be broken down within the body.
Folic Acid
A water-soluble vitamin that is essential for key functions related to cell division, DNA synthesis, and the formation of red blood cells. It can be taken as a supplement or found naturally in leafy greens, legumes, and fruits. It is man-made and can cause adverse reactions to people with MTHFR genetic mutation.
Ketones
Molecules produced by the liver from fatty acids when the body is in a state of ketosis. They serve as an alternative fuel source to glucose, particularly during periods of low carbohydrate intake or fasting.
Lion's Mane
A type of mushroom known scientifically as Hericium erinaceus. It has long, shaggy white spines resembling a lion's mane and is prized for its potential health benefits. Lion's mane is believed to have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties.
Lipoproteins
Complex particles composed of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) and proteins that transport fats throughout the body in the bloodstream. They play a crucial role in lipid metabolism, including the transport of cholesterol to and from cells.
Macronutrients
The essential nutrients that the body requires in relatively large amounts for energy production, growth, and maintenance. They include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Melatonin
A hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. It's often referred to as the "sleep hormone" because its secretion increases in response to darkness, promoting relaxation and sleepiness.
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
A type of dietary fat found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. They are characterized by the presence of one double bond in their fatty acid chain. MUFAs are considered heart-healthy fats and have been associated with numerous health benefits, including improved cholesterol levels, reduced inflammation, and enhanced insulin sensitivity.
NAD
A coenzyme found in all living cells that plays a key role in energy metabolism, DNA repair, and cellular signaling. It is involved in numerous biochemical reactions, including those related to glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
NMN
NMN is another precursor to NAD+ and is converted into NR in the body before being further metabolized into NAD+. Like nicotinamide riboside, NMN is thought to have potential benefits for energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and longevity.
Nicotinamide riboside
A form of vitamin B3 (niacin) that is found in certain foods and also produced in the body. It is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme involved in cellular energy metabolism and DNA repair.
Nootropics
Substances that purportedly improve cognitive function, memory, creativity, or motivation. They include a variety of compounds such as caffeine, L-theanine, racetams, and herbal extracts.
Olive oil (what's in it that so good)
A type of oil extracted from olives, the fruit of the olive tree. It is primarily composed of monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid), along with smaller amounts of saturated and polyunsaturated fats.
Omega-3 fatty acids
A type of polyunsaturated fat that is considered essential because the body cannot produce it on its own and must be obtained from the diet. They include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are found in fatty fish, fish oil, flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and certain algae.
Peptide Blends
Mixtures of short chains of amino acids, known as peptides, that are designed to have specific physiological effects when consumed or administered. They can be formulated to support various aspects of fitness, such as muscle growth, recovery, fat loss, or joint health.
Peptides
Short chains of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, that play important roles in various physiological processes in the body. They can act as signaling molecules, hormones, neurotransmitters, or antimicrobial agents, among other functions.
Plant-base protein
Plant-based protein refers to protein derived from plant sources such as legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, and soy products. It provides essential amino acids necessary for muscle repair and growth.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
A type of fat that contains more than one double bond in their chemical structure. They are essential nutrients that the body cannot produce and must be obtained from the diet.
Protein
Large molecules made up of amino acids, which are essential for building and repairing tissues in the body. They play crucial roles in muscle growth, repair, and maintenance.
Resveratrol
A natural compound found in certain plants, such as grapes, blueberries, and peanuts, known for its antioxidant properties. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects, cardiovascular protection, and potential anti-aging properties.
Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
A type of fat molecule that consists of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms with single bonds, resulting in a straight molecular structure. They are found in animal products such as meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as in some plant-based sources such as coconut oil and palm oil.
Shilajit
A natural substance formed from organic plant matter compressed over centuries in mountainous regions, particularly in the Himalayas. It is rich in minerals, fulvic acid, and other bioactive compounds, and has been used in traditional medicine systems for its purported health benefits, including increased energy, vitality, and endurance.
Vitamin D3
Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in calcium absorption, bone health, immune function, and overall well-being.
Apolipoprotein A
Apolipoprotein A (apoA) is a protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, often referred to as the "good cholesterol." It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids and cholesterol, including the transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion, a process known as reverse cholesterol transport.
Apolipoprotein B (apoB)
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a protein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, often referred to as the "bad cholesterol." It plays a key role in the transport of cholesterol from the liver to peripheral tissues, where it can contribute to the formation of arterial plaque. Peter Attia is a strong advocate that higher apoB levels are a better indicator of cardiovascular disease vs. the convential test for LDL levels.
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) Test
Basic blood test that measures the levels of Apolipoprotein B (apoB) in your blood. Peter Attia is a strong advocate that higher apoB levels are a better indicator of cardiovascular disease vs. the convential test for higher LDL levels.
Arterial Plaque
Arterial plaque, also known as atherosclerotic plaque or atheroma, refers to the buildup of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances within the walls of arteries. Too much of this can lead to hardening and narrowing of the arteries increasing the risk factor for heart attacks and strokes.
Lipoprotein (a) test, known as Lp(a)-P
A useful blood screening tool for diagnosing heart conditions and evaluating the risk of developing vascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common diseases and is considered by Peter Attia to be a pillar of chronic illness. The Lp(a)-P test may be particularly important for individuals with: Past heart disease High LDL cholesterol levels Family history of cardiovascular issues
Soft plaques
Soft plaques are early-stage atherosclerotic lesions in the walls of arteries that are characterized by a high lipid content and a thin fibrous cap. Unlike stable or hard plaques, which have a more calcified and stable structure, soft plaques are considered unstable and more prone to rupture. The rupture of a soft plaque can lead to the formation of a blood clot that can block the artery, potentially leading to a heart attack or stroke.
Biotracking
Monitoring the body via devices and lab tests to make decisions about food, exercise, and other lifestyle choices to optimize your body.
Mucosal Barrier Assessment
A screening that uses a dried blood sample to provide insights into the degree of intestinal inflammation, protein absorption, and intestinal lining permeability.
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